The portrayal of mental illness and the individuals who care for those suffering from it has long been a topic of interest in literature and popular culture. “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” (a novel written by Ken Kesey in 1962 and later adapted into a film directed by Milos Forman in 1975) and “Ratched” (a TV series created by Evan Romansky in 2020) provide two distinct yet interconnected perspectives on the mental health of nurses and caregivers.
I. Mental Illness In “One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest”
“One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest,” both as a novel and a film, takes place in a mental institution and revolves around the character of Nurse Ratched, a formidable and manipulative nurse who oversees the patients with an iron hand.
The story unfolds through the perspective of Randle P. McMurphy, a charismatic and rebellious patient who shakes up the rigid and oppressive environment of the institution. The portrayal of mental illness in nurses and caregivers is evident in the characters of Nurse Ratched and the supporting staff.
1. Nurse Ratched – The Inverted Caregiver:
Nurse Ratched serves as a complex and emblematic character in “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.” On the surface, she is presented as a devoted caregiver, dedicated to maintaining order and discipline in the hospital. However, her approach to caregiving is tainted by authoritarianism, manipulation, and a desire for control.
She represents the archetype of the “nurse as a tyrant,” whose approach to mental health care can exacerbate the suffering of patients rather than alleviating it.
Nurse Ratched’s strict adherence to the institution’s rules and her use of humiliation as a form of control are manifestations of the institutionalization and dehumanization that can occur in caregiving settings.
She personifies the idea that caregivers, when they are not properly equipped to deal with the challenges of mental illness, can become mentally unwell themselves. Ratched’s obsession with power and her ability to suppress her own emotions illustrate the toll that caregiving can take on an individual’s mental health.
2. The Supporting Staff – Burnout and Apathy:
The supporting staff in “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” presents another facet of the impact of mental illness on nurses and caregivers. The staff members are portrayed as overworked, disillusioned, and apathetic.
They have become desensitized to the suffering of the patients and often resort to medication and electroconvulsive therapy as their primary means of control. The mental strain of caring for individuals with severe mental illnesses is evident in their indifference and reliance on punitive measures.
These caregivers, who are supposed to provide comfort and support to the patients, are themselves suffering from the effects of prolonged exposure to mental illness. The film underscores how the working conditions and the nature of the institution contribute to the mental health challenges faced by nurses and caregivers.
The staff’s indifference is a direct result of their own mental struggles, indicating that the caregiving profession can sometimes perpetuate the cycle of mental illness rather than alleviate it.
3. The Patients – A Mirror To The Caregivers:
The patients in “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” also play a crucial role in exploring the theme of mental illness in caregivers. McMurphy’s arrival challenges the existing power dynamics in the institution, empowering the patients to assert themselves. McMurphy’s influence exposes the fragility of the caregivers and highlights the need for more compassionate and empathetic caregiving.
The interactions between the patients and the staff illustrate how the caregivers’ own mental health issues affect their ability to provide effective care. The patients’ struggles and the staff’s responses serve as a reflection of the broader issue of how mental illness in caregivers can lead to a cycle of neglect and suffering.
II. Mental illness In “Ratched”
“Ratched” provides a more contemporary and nuanced examination of mental illness in caregivers, particularly through the character of Mildred Ratched, who serves as the titular character in the TV series. Set in the mid-20th century, “Ratched” delves into the early career of Nurse Ratched before the events of “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.”
1. Nurse Ratched – The Origin Of A Complex Character:
In “Ratched,” we witness the evolution of Nurse Ratched from a young and aspiring nurse into the formidable figure we encounter in “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.” The series offers insights into her personal struggles and experiences that shape her approach to caregiving. This portrayal humanizes Ratched by depicting her as a product of her environment and the traumatic experiences she endures.
Ratched’s backstory reveals her relationship with her brother, Edmund Tolleson, a patient at a mental institution who has committed gruesome murders. Her devotion to her brother, who is mentally ill, and her journey into the world of mental health care contribute to her character’s complexity.
Her experiences shed light on how caregivers often have personal connections to mental illness, which can impact their approach to their role. Ratched’s inner turmoil and moral dilemmas make her a more empathetic character, despite her authoritarian tendencies.
2. Dr. Hanover – A Caregiver On The Brink:
Dr. Richard Hanover, the director of the mental institution in “Ratched,” is another caregiver whose mental health deteriorates over the course of the series. Dr. Hanover is a talented psychiatrist but is haunted by his own trauma and struggles with addiction.
His character exemplifies the notion that caregivers, particularly those in high-stress environments, are not immune to the impact of mental illness. Dr. Hanover’s story highlights the vulnerability of those who dedicate their lives to caring for mentally ill patients.
As Dr. Hanover’s personal and professional life unravels, it becomes evident that caregiving can be a double-edged sword. Caregivers often confront their own mental health challenges, and the pressure of their responsibilities can exacerbate pre-existing conditions or lead to the development of new ones.
“Ratched” explores several psychological and ethical themes related to mental illness in nurses and caregivers. The series delves into the ethical dilemmas faced by those in caregiving roles, including the use of experimental treatments and the boundary between providing care and exerting control.
These themes emphasize the complex and morally ambiguous nature of caregiving in mental health settings.Moreover, “Ratched” challenges the traditional portrayal of caregivers as solely responsible for their patients’ well-being. It underscores that caregivers, like everyone else, have their own struggles and vulnerabilities.
This portrayal aims to reduce the stigma associated with mental illness in the caregiving profession and encourages a more compassionate and understanding approach to those who provide care.