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Brain Science

brain science

Researchers have considered the human brain to be the greatest of life’s mysteries. Brain science is the multidisciplinary scientific study of the brain.

What Is Brain Science?

The brain is the most complicated and intricate organ 1 in the human body. It is the one system that constantly adapts and changes in response to the environment. It can directly influence the outside world. Brain science is about unlocking the secrets 2 of the brain. The working process of the brain potentially impacts not only human health but also societies and economies worldwide. Psychologists have found it very important to understand the brain as it influences behavior and mental states 3 . It has been explored that brain activity is intimately intertwined with behavior and mental processes. It is an enormous and complex enterprise that includes brain anatomy, cognitive science, and neuroscience.

Understanding Brain Science

It is considered to be the most versatile psychological 1 specialty area of the human body. The study of brain science has compelled researchers to think differently about how the brain works. It explores the areas of how the brain learns, understands, perceives, acquires, remembers, and creates language. It helps in understanding the interplay between emotion and cognition. After researching on this subject over decades, educationists have realized that this learning can help in changing the thought process of society and understand human behavior 4 in a better way. Researchers have found that brain science techniques 5 are very beneficial in providing a productive life to an individual.

Research may focus on:

  1. Understanding the brain’s activity
  2. How the brain regulates the human body and behavior including, consciousness

Researchers use different tools to work on this topic, which include:

  1. For identifying the proteins responsible for brain function, they use gene probes and antibodies.
  2. They apply behavioral methods 6 to research the processes of underlying behavior in humans and animals.
  3. For understanding the connection between neurons and the brain, they utilize computational models of neurons 7 .
  4. They use microelectrode arrays to study the activity of living neurons in the brain and fluorescent dyes to mark neurons with specific characteristics.

Difference Between Neuroscience And Brain Science

Brain science is the study of the brain. But neuroscience 8 is not only about the brain. It includes plenty of studies related to cognitive psychology 9 that gather and pose interesting questions about the human brain. Neuroscience is another form of this science. It is the study of the nervous system. The brain is a part of the central nervous system. The scope of neuroscience includes different approaches to study cellular, molecular, functional, computational, psychosocial, medical structural aspects of the nervous system. But brain science is the branch of neuroscience concerned with the brain. The main difference is at the operational and functional levels.

Basic Facts About Brain Science

There are several discrete parts 10 in the brain which include the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. The cerebrum contains six areas that include the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, limbic, and insular lobes. The first four areas can be seen from the external view of the brain, while the two others are found within the cerebrum. The outer part of the cerebrum is known as the cortex that contains a sheet of neurons. The principal communicators of the brain are neurons. They transmit signals from one part to another. Neurons are solely responsible for ultimately triggering actions, creating the experience of being well and alive, encoding and retrieving memories.

The most crucial parts of the brain include the following:

  • The frontal cortex supports a range of cognitive functions, including decision making, attention, planning complex behaviors, and regulating social actions.
  • The occipital cortex features many different layers. Each layer processes a different component.
  • The middle of the brain plays a huge role in motor coordination and motor processing.
  • The temporal lobes are known for their relevance in language.
  • The brain stem connects the cerebrum and the cerebellum to the spinal cord. It acts as a relay center.

Along with these, there are several fascinating critical areas of the brain. There are other regions within the brain, including the basal ganglia involved in action selection, the hippocampi involved in-memory processing, and the amygdalae involved in fear processing.

Different Areas Associated With Brain Science

This subject contains different branches. Each of these areas focuses on a specific body system, topic, or function.

1. Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science is a subfield of brain science, it explains the biological processes that underlie human cognition 11 . It explores how the human brain creates and controls problem-solving, thought, language, memory.

2. Developmental Science

Developmental Science 12 is specifically interested in the development of the brain, along with the development of brain dysfunction, pathologies, aging, and trauma. It describes how the human brain grows, forms and changes.

3. Behavioral Science

Behavioral Science 6 focuses on the biological basis of behavior in humans and animals. This specific field studies the brain areas and processes underlying how animals and humans act. It examines the psychological events associated with biological activity and the neurotransmission of the brain.

4. Clinical Science

Clinical Science 13 aims to gather together the research on behavioral, cognitive, and other everyday consequences of different brain function-induced conditions. It examines the treatment and prevention of neurological disorders.

5. Sensory Science

Sensory Science 14 studies how the human brain processes sensory information like touch, sound, sight, etc. It explores the features of the body’s sensor systems, the process of nervous system interpretation, and information transmission.

6. Molecular and Cellular Science

Molecular and Cellular Science 15 research to understand the brain at its most fundamental level. It focuses on genes, proteins, and other molecules to understand how the brain functions.

Connection With The Nervous System

Brain Science is a rich field devoted to studying many facets of the brain. The nervous system consists of both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves of the muscles, organs, and other extremities. The brain is considered the headquarter of the central nervous system, which is a processing center of the human body. The brain functions like a computer and controls the body’s activity. The nervous system works like a network that relays signals and messages from the brain to the muscles and organs of the body.

Brain Science & Cognitive Psychology

The human brain is considered a powerful and amazing tool. Brain Science focuses on how a person learns, sees, remembers, hears, perceives, understands, and creates language. Cognitive Psychology examines how people perceive, acquire, store, and process information. The study explores how people learn the language and understand the interplay between emotion and cognition.

Cognitive psychology and brain science are some of the most in-demand versatile psychological areas. All psychological professionals are interested in knowing how the brain works, how the brain processes information. The research of cognitive psychology and the resulting applications of it have become an essential part of how schools, organizations, and businesses function and succeed. Cognitive psychologists study to treat issues that are related to the human brain processes, such as memory loss, speech issues, sensory difficulties, Alzheimer’s disease, and perception difficulties.

Integral Part In Education

The human brain continues to change and grow as people learn new things. The process is called “neuroplasticity” 16. It makes new connections when a person learns something new. Brain science technology and cognitive neuroscience refuse the idea of the human brain being static or fixed. From the very start of life, the brain is biologically prepared to acquire language. Brain science has started to explore how the human brain processes language differently among young people compared with the more mature ones. It plays a key role in generating valuable new knowledge to inform educational policy and practice. It provides essential neuroscientific evidence to promote the benefits of lifelong learning.

Brain Science Reviewed By :

  1. National Institutes of Health (US); Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2007. Information about the Brain. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK20367/ [][]
  2. Barrionuevo G. (2010). Brain Sciences – An Open Access Journal. Brain Sciences1(1), 1–2. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci1010001 []
  3. Barrett L. F. (2009). The Future of Psychology: Connecting Mind to Brain. Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science4(4), 326–339. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01134.x []
  4. Kirby, L. F. . Brain Science and Teaching: A Forty-Year Personal History. ERIC – Education Resources Information Center. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1126340.pdf []
  5. National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development; Shonkoff JP, Phillips DA, editors. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000. C, Technologies for Studying the Developing Human Brain. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK225546/ []
  6. National Research Council; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Committee on Basic Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences; Gerstein DR, Luce RD, Smelser NJ, et al., editors. The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1988. 1, Behavior, Mind, and Brain. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546486/ [][]
  7. Aimone J. B. (2016). Computational Modeling of Adult Neurogenesis. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology8(4), a018960. https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a018960 []
  8. Brown R. E. (2019). Why Study the History of Neuroscience?. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience13, 82. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00082 []
  9. Brook A. Introduction: philosophy in and philosophy of cognitive science. Top Cogn Sci. 2009 Apr;1(2):216-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-8765.2009.01014.x. PMID: 25164928. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25164928/ []
  10. Marieb, & Hoehn.  Human Anatomy & Physiology. WOU Community – WordPress sites for members of the WOU community. https://people.wou.edu/~lemastm/Teaching/BI335/Laboratory%2001%20-%20Brain%20Anatomy.pdf []
  11. Heyes C. (2012). New thinking: the evolution of human cognition. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences367(1599), 2091–2096. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0111 []
  12. Spenrath, M. A., Clarke, M. E., & Kutcher, S. (2011). The science of brain and biological development: implications for mental health research, practice and policy. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l’Academie canadienne de psychiatrie de l’enfant et de l’adolescent20(4), 298–304. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3222573/ []
  13. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Building Bridges in the Brain, Behavioral, and Clinical Sciences; Pellmar TC, Eisenberg L, editors. Bridging Disciplines in the Brain, Behavioral, and Clinical Sciences. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44875/ doi: 10.17226/9942 []
  14. Jung, W. M., Ryu, Y., Park, H. J., Lee, H., & Chae, Y. (2018). Brain activation during the expectations of sensory experience for cutaneous electrical stimulation. NeuroImage. Clinical19, 982–989. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2018.06.022 []
  15. Jiang, X., & Nardelli, J. (2016). Cellular and molecular introduction to brain development. Neurobiology of disease92(Pt A), 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2015.07.007 []
  16. Puderbaugh M, Emmady PD. Neuroplasticity. [Updated 2020 Dec 12]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557811/ []