Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy technique that can help people to cope with various mental health conditions by changing the way they think and behave. Numerous studies have found CBT to be highly effective.
- What Is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy?
- Origins Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- Understanding Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- How CBT Works?
- Basic Principles In Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- Importance Of Thoughts And Behaviors In CBT
- CBT Learning Tools
- What Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Can Help With?
- Types Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- Phases In Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- Is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Effective?
- What To Expect From CBT?
- How To Find A Therapist
- Things To Remember
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy At A Glance
What Is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy?
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of psychosocial intervention that helps to change disturbing thought patterns that can negatively impact our behavior. By focusing on improving impulsive and instinctive negative thoughts, CBT aims to improve mood, emotions and mental health. This therapy technique encourages the patient to identify, challenge and change dysfunctional cognitive distortions into more positive & realistic thoughts, behaviors, attitudes & beliefs improving emotional regulation 1 . It also involves numerous strategies, such as relaxation techniques, journaling & role-playing, that can help people overcome such destructive thoughts.
According to the experts at Mind Help, “CBT is a type of psychological therapy or talking therapy which has proved more effective in treating various psychiatric conditions than other types of therapies or medications.” Although CBT was initially developed for treating depression, it is now widely used in the treatment of different psychiatric conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, drug abuse and other severe mental illnesses. Studies 2 have found that CBT can significantly improve the quality of life 3 and functioning of a person.
CBT can be recommended to individuals of all ages, even children and older adults. A scientific analysis 4 explains “Cognitive behavior therapy is a structured, didactic, and goal-oriented form of therapy.” It adds “CBT has been adapted and studied for children, adolescents, adults, couples, and families.” This treatment approach has shown to be helpful in a short period of time. Although there is no established time frame, typically 5 to 20 CBT sessions can be effective.
Origins Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
CBT was originally developed by psychiatrist Aaron Beck in the 1960s. While working with depression patients, Beck observed that the patients often had “cognitive distortions” in their thoughts and their words lacked validity. His observations made him believe that depression is more of a cognitive disorder than a mood disorder as certain thoughts led to emotional distress. He identified these thoughts as “automatic negative thoughts.” This eventually led him to develop Cognitive Therapy for Depression. “Beck pioneered a model for what psychologists many years later defined as an “empirically validated psychological treatment,” explains a scientific review. As other researchers and clinicians found the concept interesting, they eventually developed different treatment protocols for CBT and analyzed their efficacy. Later, behavioral strategies were integrated into cognitive therapy and the term was modified to cognitive behavior therapy. “Today CBT is the most extensively researched of all psychotherapies with several evidence-based treatment protocols,” adds the review.
However, CBT is also based on Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT), which was developed by psychologist Albert Ellis in the late 1950s. Ellis developed REBT as he found out that being aware of our thoughts and beliefs did not necessarily help to change them. REBT is based on the basic philosophy that emotional and behavioral problems are typically caused by our own illogical beliefs about it & how we may approach it. However, if we change such beliefs, we can improve our emotions and behaviors. A 2018 study 5 explains “Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is the original form and one of the main pillars of cognitive‐behavioral therapies (CBT). Alongside with the cognitive therapy (CT) created by Aaron Beck (1976), it served as the basis for the development of CBT.”
Understanding Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
CBT is considered as one of the best studied and most effective forms of psychotherapy. It is even considered as the current “gold standard” of psychotherapy by most experts. According to a recent scientific review 6 “Cognitive behavioral therapy is a problem-oriented strategy. It focuses on current problems and finding solutions for them.” Instead of dealing with past issues, CBT focuses on the current problems. This approach believes in helping patients to help themselves so that they can improve their quality of life without any further psychological intervention. “This does not mean that cognitive behavioral therapy completely ignores the influence of past events. But it mainly deals with identifying and changing current distressing thought and behavioral patterns,” adds the scientific review.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is an integration of two separate psychotherapy techniques – cognitive therapy & behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy helps to build clarity about our own thought & behavior patterns, expectations and attitudes with the objective of changing distressing and false beliefs. With cognitive therapy one can learn how to replace harmful thoughts with realistic ones. Behavioral therapy, on the other hand, is based on behavioral psychology or behaviorism. According to this theory, behaviors are learned through conditioning and hence can be unlearned and relearned. Behavioral therapy focuses on how specific behavioral habits can lead to problems in our lives and how to change such behavioral patterns. CBT combines both these therapeutic approaches to improve mental and emotional health. It is based on the principle that our thoughts, emotions and behavior are closely connected and these factors contribute to our overall well being.
How CBT Works?
Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on finding practical strategies to improve the mindset of the patient on a regular basis. According to a 2017 study 7 , the crux of the CBT model is that our thoughts, behaviors & emotions are interconnected & these elements can lead to distress. As it is difficult to change emotions directly, the CBT model challenges maladaptive and damaging thoughts 8 & behaviors to bring about a necessary change in emotional distress. The researchers of the study state “Utilizing an evidence-based approach, CBT is a time-limited, present-oriented psychotherapy to help people modify dysfunctional thinking and behavior, as a way to help solve current problems. Contemporary CBT refers to a family of interventions that blend an assortment of behavioral, emotion-focused, and cognitive techniques.”
Our thoughts, emotions, behaviors and beliefs influence our perception of the world. With the help of CBT, we can become aware of how our thought patterns determine our behavior and our reality. Once we are aware of such thoughts, CBT can help us learn to alter them with more positive thoughts to change our behavior and attitude. This can help to reduce their emotional distress, risk of negative moods and enable them to function more productively, benefiting others around them as well. However, one may need a number of sessions over various weeks or months to experience the positive effects of CBT.
As cognitive behavioral therapy is an action-oriented, problem-focused type of psychotherapy, it differs from conventional therapy approaches. The therapist helps the patient overcome a diagnosed psychiatric disorder by helping them learn new information-processing skills and implement effective coping strategies. This helps to relieve symptoms of the conditions and achieve identified goals set by the patient and the therapist together. CBT strategies also enable people to build a more aware, mindful and open approach towards cognitive distortions which helps to reduce their impact.
Basic Principles In Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy is based on the notion that our thoughts, emotions, behaviors and actions are interrelated. Thus, negative thoughts and overwhelming emotions can affect us adversely. CBT shows us how to change negative thought patterns and deal with challenges in a positive way. The primary aim is to change our mental state on a daily basis. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), this form of psychotherapy is based on certain core principles, such as –
- Distorted or “unhelpful” patterns of thought can often cause mental health problems.
- “Learned patterns of unhelpful behavior” can also lead to certain mental health problems.
- Individuals affected by psychological problems can learn to cope with them better by changing the way they think and behave.
- New thought and behavior patterns can help to relieve symptoms & help them to live better lives.
Importance Of Thoughts And Behaviors In CBT
The cycle of thoughts and behaviors of an individual also play a vital role in developing the strategy of the therapy. Negative and distorted thoughts and perceptions often lead to mental health issues and emotional distress. This can contribute to harmful or unhelpful behaviors. If unaddressed, such thoughts and behaviors can become negative patterns and may occur repeatedly. Distorted perceptions can make an individual vulnerable to –
- Developing a negative or pessimistic state of mind
- Being judgmental or judge prematurely
- Considering everything as either good or bad/evil, and nothing in between
- Mistaking certain situations as disastrous even though it is normal or common
CBT helps us to identify, address and change these destructive thought and behavior patterns and overcome the resultant problems to reduce further distress in future. Here are certain core concepts associated with thought and behavior patterns in CBT:
1. Thought patterns
As CBT primarily focuses on improving thoughts, the process may involve the following strategies:
- Learning how to identify distorted thoughts leading to psychological and emotional problems.
- Analyzing these disturbing thoughts in a more positive and realistic manner.
- Developing a clearer understanding about the motivation & behavior of other people.
- Coping with challenging situations with problem-solving skills.
- Building a stronger sense of self-worth and self-confidence in our own abilities.
2. Behavioral patterns
Strategies for improving behavior using CBT may involve the following efforts:
- Focusing on overcoming fears and anxieties instead of avoiding them
- Preparing for interactions with other people that may be complicated or problematic with the help of role playing
- Learning ways to relax the body and calm the mind to reduce stress and anxiety
CBT Learning Tools
Some of the most common CBT learning tools may include the following:
- One-to-one sessions and/or group discussion sessions regularly
- Constant feedback
- Techniques to relax the mind and body
- Exposure to the object of fear or anxiety in gradually increasing manner
- Role-playing activities
- Maintaining a CBT diary
- Homework assignments
- Practicing coping skills learned during sessions for positive change in thought and behavior patterns
However, these strategies may not be utilized by all types of cognitive behavioral therapy. The treatment strategy is typically developed by the psychiatrist/psychologist by working closely with the patient to understand the condition(s) better and for more effective treatment. This form of therapy is focused on enabling the patient to help themselves by developing certain coping skills to change their negative thoughts, emotions and behaviors. This is typically done through certain exercises during the therapy sessions and even at home, outside of sessions. Although the therapist may look into the medical and family history of the patient, the focus is primarily on the current situations in the patient’s life and how to move forward in life effectively.
What Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Can Help With?
CBT has been found to be substantially effective in depressive and anxiety disorders 9 . However, it can also help with a range of other conditions as well. According to a recent 2020 study 10 , “Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the most evidence-based psychological interventions for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorder, and substance use disorder.” The researchers add that the application of this type of therapy has recently been extended to “psychotic disorders, behavioral medicine, marital discord, stressful life situations, and many other clinical conditions.”
CBT can successfully help in the treatment of the following psychiatric conditions:
- Major depressive disorder 11
- Anxiety disorders 12 , such as phobia and panic
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD 13 )
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD 14 )
- Eating disorders 15
- Dysthymia 16
- Bipolar disorder 17
- Substance use disorder 18
- Somatoform disorders 19
- Personality disorders 20
- Anger 21 & aggression 22
- Antisocial 23 & criminal behaviors
Apart from these, CBT can also be applied effectively in the following situations, even in the absence of a particular mental health condition:
- Grief or loss 24
- Relationship or marital problems 25
- Breakup or divorce
- Insomnia 26
- Low self-esteem 27
- General life stress 28
- Fibromyalgia 29
- Migraines 30
- Irritable bowel syndrome 31
- Chronic pain 32 and chronic fatigue syndrome 33
- Distress related to general medical conditions
- Distress due to pregnancy complications 34
- Female hormonal conditions 35
Read More About Chronic pain Here
Types Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy involves a wide range of approaches and techniques which focus on improving our thoughts, behaviors and actions. These approaches can include self-help strategies and different types of structured psychotherapies. Some of the most common types CBT approaches include the following:
1. Cognitive therapy (CT)
This form of therapy is based on the cognitive model of psychopathology and focuses on recognizing and improving distorted & unhelpful thoughts, behaviors and emotional responses.
2. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
DBT primarily focuses on changing thought and behavior patterns and involves helpful strategies to promote emotional regulation as well as mindfulness. “Dialectical behavior therapy is a modular and hierarchical treatment consisting of a combination of individual psychotherapy, group skills, training, telephone coaching, and a therapist consultation team,” explains a 2015 study 36 .
3. Multimodal therapy
In this form of therapy, the core concept suggests that mental health problems can be treated when certain interconnected yet separate modalities are addressed, which include – affect, behavior, cognition, drug/biological considerations, interpersonal factors, imagery and sensation. A scientific review 37 describes multimodal therapy “as a broad category that involves combining two or more modalities that target different aspects of a disease.”
4. Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
REBT mainly focuses on enabling patients to recognize irrational and unjustifiable beliefs, challenge such beliefs actively and learn to identify and replace these negative thought patterns with more positive ones. According to a 2016 study 38 , “REBT is considered to be the original cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) by many scholars, and was developed by Dr. Albert Ellis in the 1950s and was driven in part by Ellis’ desire to conceive of a more effective psychotherapy that addressed some of the shortcomings of psychoanalysis.”
Apart from these, there are some other common types of CBT which may include –
- Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT 39 )
- Self-Instructional Training
- Stress Inoculation Training
Even though the different forms of cognitive behavioral therapy may take unique different approaches, all the types focus on addressing and improving thought & behavior patterns that lead to psychiatric disorders and psychological distress.
Phases In Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
According to a 2008 study 40 , CBT is believed to have six distinctive phases which include:
This stage mainly involves open communication and interaction between the therapist and the patient and their families. It also includes certain self-reported measures to recognize the severity of psychosocial impairment so the most effective course of action can be determined. This phase can further include the following steps:
- Identifying undesirable or negative behaviors
- Deciding if undesirable behaviors tend to be deficits or excesses
- Assessing such behaviors to get a baseline for intensity, frequency and duration
- Reducing intensity, frequency and duration, if behavior is excess; increasing behaviors in case of deficits
This stage is considered as one of the most crucial phases of therapy as it comprises most of the cognitive aspect of CBT. “The reconceptualization phase of CBT seeks to help patients to challenge and question the rationality of such maladaptive thoughts,” explains the study.
3. Skills acquisition
In this phase, the patient learns skills and strategies to cope with daily challenges and stressors with the help of the therapist. The doctor may also teach the individual ways to avoid sinking back into the negative thought and behavior patterns.
4. Skills consolidation and application training
The researchers explain that in this phase, “patients are given homework in an attempt to help them reinforce the skills that they have acquired during the skill acquisition phase, one of the hallmark methods in CBT.”
5. Generalization and maintenance
During this phase, the patient and the therapist communicate and share their thoughts about the future to determine how the patient can cope with challenges after the treatment is over.
6. Post-treatment assessment follow-up
The final phase involves post-treatment assessments and follow-up and requires complete participation and co-operation from the patient. This can help the therapist “to monitor and evaluate patients’ application of CBT skills to their lives,” adds the study.
Once the treatment is deemed complete and post-treatment assessments have been made, the therapist needs to determine whether cognitive behavioral therapy was successful or not and then decide the next course of action accordingly.
Is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Effective?
Studies 41 show that CBT is an effective psychotherapy approach that can help to relieve symptoms and improve overall patient satisfaction. One 2018 study considers CBT as the gold-standard of psychological treatment, that is the best standard currently available in the field, due to the following reasons –
- CBT is believed to be the most widely researched and studied form of psychotherapy.
- Other types of psychotherapy have not been found to be systematically more effective or better than CBT. “If there are systematic differences between psychotherapies, they typically favor CBT,” explains the study.
- The mechanisms and models of change used in CBT are perhaps the most studied. They are in compliance with established “mainstream paradigms of human mind and behavior,” such as information processing.
The study explains “Cognitive behavioral therapy was the first form of psychotherapy tested with the most stringent criteria of evidence-based framework used in the health field. Therefore, it was the first psychotherapy largely identified as evidence-based in most clinical guidelines.” However, the researchers believe that there is still scope for further improvement as in certain situations patients may not respond to this treatment approach or may relapse.
Know More About Effectiveness Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Here
What To Expect From CBT?
Cognitive behavioral therapy is typically provided by a licensed therapist, psychologist, licensed counselor, or other mental health professionals. The CBT sessions can be individual or in a group. It may also include self-help materials under the supervision of a therapist. Usually, you may need to attend a session once a week or every 2 weeks. On average, the course of treatment may involve 5 to 20 sessions with each session lasting between 30 to 60 minutes, depending on the condition. Although the duration of the treatment is usually short-term, some patients may need to attend sessions for over a year.
The therapist will work closely with you to establish practical treatment goals, identify and break down issues into different parts and provide you tasks to be accomplished on your own. As the treatment does not focus on your personality traits or your past issues & experiences, the therapist will encourage you to focus on your current thoughts and feelings. Your therapist will then help you work through unrealistic or unhelpful thoughts and behaviors & understand how you may change them in your daily life. Your progress will then be discussed in the next therapy session.
The objective of CBT is to help you learn and apply necessary coping skills in your daily life & prevent your thoughts from affecting you negatively. You should also feel free to ask any questions or concerns that you may have during the treatment. By openly communicating with your therapist and working with them in a co-operative way you will be able to get the most out of your session. If for some reason you think your therapist is not right for you, you can opt to see another mental health professional.
How To Find A Therapist
As not every therapist or counselor may be the best fit for your condition, you should only work with licensed and trained mental health professionals who are experienced with cognitive behavioral therapy. The titles of the professional may be different based on their qualifications and role but they should be able to help you in the best way possible. However, it is often best to work with psychologists, psychiatrists or psychotherapists. You should also check for their license, certification, years of experience, field of expertise and if they specialize in certain conditions like depression 42 , PTSD, eating disorders etc.
Things To Remember
CBT has been proven to be highly effective for most people, however, it may be possible that it may not work for your specific condition due to different factors. This is why it is important to keep a few things in mind to get the most of your cognitive behavioral therapy, such as:
1. CBT isn’t a cure
This form of therapy focuses on enabling the patient to learn new coping skills to deal with issues that they are experiencing. However, emotional distress and psychological problems may still continue as CBT may not necessarily remove them, even if it relieves the symptoms. It is a form of training that empowers you to be your own therapist.
2. Patience is necessary
Depending on your condition, you may require 5 to 20 CBT sessions, with each session every week. This is why you need to be patient and work with your therapist persistently to see favorable results. Instead of worrying about the effectiveness of the treatment, focus on attending sessions regularly, developing the skills your therapist teaches you, doing your homework and applying what you learn in the therapy sessions. Changing your thought and behavior patterns can be highly challenging. So make sure to take one step at a time and don’t expect any instant or magical results.
3. Be an active participant
Therapy proves to be effective when you approach it as a partnership and actively participate in making decisions with your therapist. Work through issues, address major concerns, set goals and analyze problems together with the therapist.
4. Communicate honestly and openly
Make sure to share your genuine thoughts, emotions and experiences with your therapist honestly. It is also important that you keep an open mind and accept the suggestions of your therapist. Openly inform them about any reservations that you may have.
5. Follow the treatment plan
Do not skip a session or be irregular in your treatment just because you lack motivation or do not see the results you expected. This can adversely affect your progress. Make sure to attend sessions regularly and share everything you want to with your therapist.
6. It is not the only solution
As mentioned earlier, CBT may not work for everyone. If you think that this therapy is not beneficial for you, then let your therapist know about it. They can help you develop a new approach or try other forms of therapy and treatment that can help you better.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the most studied and effective forms of psychotherapy that can enable someone to alter their beliefs & perceptions and replace negative thoughts with more positive ones. CBT can also help to improve our mood & behavior and cope with different mental health conditions, like, anxiety & depression.
One should only work with qualified & licensed professionals to make the most out of the CBT sessions. One can even opt for online self-help CBT intervention as research 43 indicates this can have significant “positive effects.” CBT is undoubtedly one of the most helpful and effective tools for improving your mental and emotional well being.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy At A Glance
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a type of psychological therapy that is highly effective in treating various psychiatric conditions.
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy is an integration of two separate psychotherapy techniques – cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy.
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on the notion that our thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and actions are interrelated.
- CBT has been found to be substantially effective in depressive and anxiety disorders
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy is typically provided by a licensed therapist, psychologist, licensed counselor, or other mental health professionals.
- Benjamin, C. L., Puleo, C. M., Settipani, C. A., Brodman, D. M., Edmunds, J. M., Cummings, C. M., & Kendall, P. C. (2011). History of cognitive-behavioral therapy in youth. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 20(2), 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2011.01.011
- Hofmann, S.G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I.J.J. et al. The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cogn Ther Res 36, 427–440 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1
- Nekouei, Z. K., Yousefy, A., & Manshaee, G. (2012). Cognitive-behavioral therapy and quality of life: An experience among cardiac patients. Journal of education and health promotion, 1, 2. https://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9531.94410
- Chand SP, Kuckel DP, Huecker MR. Cognitive Behavior Therapy. [Updated 2020 Oct 15]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470241/
- David, D., Cotet, C., Matu, S., Mogoase, C., & Stefan, S. (2018). 50 years of rational-emotive and cognitive-behavioral therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of clinical psychology, 74(3), 304–318. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22514
- InformedHealth.org [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. Cognitive behavioral therapy. 2013 Aug 7 [Updated 2016 Sep 8]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279297/
- Melton L. (2017). Brief Introduction to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology. Journal of the advanced practitioner in oncology, 8(2), 188–193. https://doi.org/10.6004/jadpro.2017.8.2.6
- Longmore RJ, Worrell M. Do we need to challenge thoughts in cognitive behavior therapy? Clin Psychol Rev. 2007 Mar;27(2):173-87. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.08.001. Epub 2006 Dec 8. PMID: 17157970.
- Cuijpers, P., Cristea, I. A., Karyotaki, E., Reijnders, M., & Huibers, M. J. (2016). How effective are cognitive behavior therapies for major depression and anxiety disorders? A meta-analytic update of the evidence. World psychiatry : official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 15(3), 245–258. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20346
- Gautam, M., Tripathi, A., Deshmukh, D., & Gaur, M. (2020). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression. Indian journal of psychiatry, 62(Suppl 2), S223–S229. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_772_19
- Health Quality Ontario. Psychotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Health Technology Assessment. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser. 2017 Nov 13;17(15):1-167. PMID: 29213344; PMCID: PMC5709536.
- Kaczkurkin, A. N., & Foa, E. B. (2015). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update on the empirical evidence. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 17(3), 337–346. https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2015.17.3/akaczkurkin
- Syros I. (2017). Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(sup4), 1351219. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2017.1351219
- Foa E. B. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 12(2), 199–207. https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2010.12.2/efoa
- Murphy, R., Straebler, S., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. G. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders. The Psychiatric clinics of North America, 33(3), 611–627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.004
- Schuyler D. (2004). Cognitive Therapy for Dysthymia. Primary care companion to the Journal of clinical psychiatry, 6(3), 132–133. https://doi.org/10.4088/pcc.v06n0305
- Chiang, K. J., Tsai, J. C., Liu, D., Lin, C. H., Chiu, H. L., & Chou, K. R. (2017). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in patients with bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PloS one, 12(5), e0176849. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176849
- McHugh, R. K., Hearon, B. A., & Otto, M. W. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy for substance use disorders. The Psychiatric clinics of North America, 33(3), 511–525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.012
- Allen LA, Woolfolk RL. Cognitive behavioral therapy for somatoform disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010 Sep;33(3):579-93. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.014. PMID: 20599134.
- Matusiewicz, A. K., Hopwood, C. J., Banducci, A. N., & Lejuez, C. W. (2010). The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for personality disorders. The Psychiatric clinics of North America, 33(3), 657–685. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.007
- Steffgen G. (2017). Anger Management – Evaluation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Training Program for Table Tennis Players. Journal of human kinetics, 55, 65–73. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0006
- Iruthayarajah J, Alibrahim F, Mehta S, Janzen S, McIntyre A, Teasell R. Cognitive behavioural therapy for aggression among individuals with moderate to severe acquired brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Inj. 2018;32(12):1443-1449. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2018.1496481. Epub 2018 Jul 9. PMID: 29985654.
- Armelius, B. A., & Andreassen, T. H. (2007). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for antisocial behavior in youth in residential treatment. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2007(4), CD005650. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005650.pub2
- Rosner, R., Rimane, E., Vogel, A., Rau, J., & Hagl, M. (2018). Treating prolonged grief disorder with prolonged grief-specific cognitive behavioral therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 19(1), 241. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2618-3
- Shayan, A., Taravati, M., Garousian, M., Babakhani, N., Faradmal, J., & Masoumi, S. Z. (2018). The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Marital Quality among Women. International journal of fertility & sterility, 12(2), 99–105. https://doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2018.5257
- Williams, J., Roth, A., Vatthauer, K., & McCrae, C. S. (2013). Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia. Chest, 143(2), 554–565. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.12-0731
- Taylor TL, Montgomery P. Can cognitive-behavioral therapy increase self-esteem among depressed adolescents: a systematic review. 2007. In: Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet]. York (UK): Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK); 1995-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK74020/
- Sahranavard, S., Esmaeili, A., Dastjerdi, R., & Salehiniya, H. (2018). The effectiveness of stress-management-based cognitive-behavioral treatments on anxiety sensitivity, positive and negative affect and hope. BioMedicine, 8(4), 23. https://doi.org/10.1051/bmdcn/2018080423
- Bennett R, Nelson D. Cognitive behavioral therapy for fibromyalgia. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2006 Aug;2(8):416-24. doi: 10.1038/ncprheum0245. PMID: 16932733.
- Harris, P., Loveman, E., Clegg, A., Easton, S., & Berry, N. (2015). Systematic review of cognitive behavioural therapy for the management of headaches and migraines in adults. British journal of pain, 9(4), 213–224. https://doi.org/10.1177/2049463715578291
- Kinsinger SW. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with irritable bowel syndrome: current insights. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2017 Jul 19;10:231-237. doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S120817. PMID: 28790872; PMCID: PMC5530860.
- Broderick JE, Keefe FJ, Schneider S, Junghaenel DU, Bruckenthal P, Schwartz JE, Kaell AT, Caldwell DS, McKee D, Gould E. Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain is effective, but for whom? Pain. 2016 Sep;157(9):2115-2123. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000626. PMID: 27227692.
- O’Dowd H, Gladwell P, Rogers CA, Hollinghurst S, Gregory A. Cognitive behavioural therapy in chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial of an outpatient group programme. Health Technol Assess. 2006 Oct;10(37):iii-iv, ix-x, 1-121. doi: 10.3310/hta10370. PMID: 17014748.
- Shariatkhah, J., Farajzadeh, Z., & Khazaee, K. (2017). The Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management on Nurses’ Job Stress. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research, 22(5), 398–402. https://doi.org/10.4103/1735-9066.215683
- Mann, E., Smith, M. J., Hellier, J., Balabanovic, J. A., Hamed, H., Grunfeld, E. A., & Hunter, M. S. (2012). Cognitive behavioural treatment for women who have menopausal symptoms after breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. Oncology, 13(3), 309–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70364-3
- Linehan MM, Wilks CR. The Course and Evolution of Dialectical Behavior Therapy. Am J Psychother. 2015;69(2):97-110. doi: 10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2015.69.2.97. PMID: 26160617.
- National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Health Sciences Policy; Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders. Developing Multimodal Therapies for Brain Disorders: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2016 Nov 18. 2, Multimodal Therapy: Overview of Principles, Barriers, and Opportunities. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK424612/
- Turner M. J. (2016). Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1423. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01423
- Tran K, Moulton K, Santesso N, et al. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2016 Mar. (CADTH Health Technology Assessment, No. 141.) Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK362346/
- Gatchel, R. J., & Rollings, K. H. (2008). Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with cognitive behavioral therapy. The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society, 8(1), 40–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2007.10.007
- Hiltunen, A. J., Kocys, E., & Perrin-Wallqvist, R. (2013). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainees at a university psychotherapy training center. Wiley Online Library. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/pchj.23
- Gautam, M., Tripathi, A., Deshmukh, D., & Gaur, M. (2020). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression. Indian journal of psychiatry, 62(Suppl 2), S223–S229. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_772_19
- Carpenter KM, Stoner SA, Mundt JM, Stoelb B. An online self-help CBT intervention for chronic lower back pain. Clin J Pain. 2012 Jan;28(1):14-22. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e31822363db. PMID: 21681084; PMCID: PMC3184315.